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Leading Endocrinologists In Kolkata

Overview

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a fairly common health condition. It is a public health epidemic that heightens the risk of cardiac diseases, stroke, and if not controlled, it may possibly lead to blindness, chronic kidney diseases, recurrent foot ulcerations and amputations. It is a disease of the metabolism levels that limits the body’s capability to manage the glucose or sugar in the bloodstream. This condition is popularly referred to as blood sugar too.

While it is a chronic condition that requires lifestyle changes and strict discipline to manage, the best diabetes doctors along with a network of physicians and support staff work towards ensuring that those diagnosed with diabetes are able to lead a healthy life.

What causes Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus or commonly known as just diabetes is a combination of several conditions that primarily focus on the problems with insulin, a hormone, that is released by the pancreas, to help the body store and utilize the glucose and fat that one gets from food that is consumed. The management of diabetes is done by some of the best endocrinologists in Fortis Hospital, Kolkata.

The following conditions lead to the development of diabetes:

  • If the pancreas stops producing any insulin
  • If the pancreas produces insulin is very limited quantities
  • If the body is not able to follow the required response mechanisms to insulin which is a condition known as ‘insulin resistance’

Understanding Diabetes

Insulin is an important hormone and has a critical role to play in diabetes. The leading endocrinologist in Kolkata can gauge the fluctuations in hormones. The human body comprises of millions of cells that generate energy. In order to produce energy, the cells require food in a simple form. The food and drink consumed by the body are processed and broken down into sugar or glucose. The sugar is then transported to the cells via the bloodstream which in turn is utilized to produce the energy that the body requires to be able to perform daily activities.

The quantity of sugar in the blood is precisely regulated by insulin which is the hormone released from the pancreas in limited amounts all the time. At the time that the amount of sugar in the bloodstream increases to a specific level, more and more insulin is released by the pancreas that then pushes the sugar into the cells. This results in the blood glucose levels experiencing a drop.

If the sugar levels in the blood are really on the lower end, the body automatically signals to eat. This ensures that some glucose is released and subsequently stored in the liver. The body of those individuals diagnosed with diabetes either do not produce insulin or are insulin resistant. This eventually leads to increased levels of glucose circulating in the bloodstream. The condition is also known as high blood sugar.

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes may be categorized into different types including:

Type 1 diabetes is a form of autoimmune condition where the immune system attacks and kills cells in the pancreas, where insulin is manufactured. The majority of individuals with type 1 diabetes produce no insulin and thus revert to insulin injections in order to regulate the blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is common in people less than 20 years of age. However, it may develop at any age.

Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes as the body does not stop producing insulin. However, the insulin secreted by the pancreas is either not adequate or the body becomes insulin resistant and the glucose levels begin to build in the bloodstream. This is the most common form of diabetes affecting adults across the world.

Prediabetes develops when the glucose in the bloodstream is higher than the normal quantities. However, the range is not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a high blood sugar condition that occurs during pregnancy. This form of diabetes is caused by insulin-blocking hormones that are generated by the placenta.

Diabetes insipidus is a rare disease where the kidneys tend to remove large amounts of fluid from the body. The condition is not related to diabetes mellitus.

Diseases & Treatment

Symptoms of Diabetes

The general symptoms that indicate a diabetic condition are:

  • Increased hunger pangs
  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Noticeable and sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • Longer healing time of sores and wounds

Adding on to the general symptoms of diabetes, men may go through the following:

  • Lower sex drive
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Lesser muscles strength

Women too may face additional symptoms in combination with the general symptoms, namely:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Yeast infections
  • Dry and itchy skin

Symptoms of diabetes can also vary depending on the type. Symptoms that indicate type 1 diabetes are:

  • Bouts of extreme hunger
  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urge for urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Sudden mood change

Symptoms that may point towards type 2 diabetes include:

  • Bouts of extreme hunger
  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urge for urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Longer healing time
  • Recurring infections

Symptoms for gestational diabetes are not easily identified as most women don’t experience any. For the majority of cases of gestational diabetes, it is diagnosed during routine blood sugar testing or through an oral glucose tolerance test performed typically between the 24th and 28th week of the pregnancy.

However, in the rarest of circumstances, symptoms that may indicate to gestational diabetes during pregnancy are:

  • Frequent thirst
  • Need to urinate repeatedly

Causes of Diabetes

The reasons for the development of diabetes in an individual are largely due to the following:

Type 1 Diabetes: Medical practitioners are yet to find out exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. While many are of the opinion that genes play a key role in this, it is possible that the immune system that mistakenly fights and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that manufacture insulin could be triggered by a virus.

Type 2 Diabetes: This disease may be caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. Other factors that may also contribute as a significant cause is being overweight or obese. Carrying additional weight on the body, especially in the abdomen region, pushes the cells towards being more resistant to the impact of insulin on the sugar in the blood.

Gestational Diabetes: Hormonal changes during pregnancy is the primary cause of gestational diabetes. During this time, the placenta that connects the mother and the child in the womb generates these hormones that make the mother’s cells less responsive to the powers of insulin causing high blood sugar throughout the pregnancy period. Being overweight prior to pregnancy or gaining weight more than necessary during this period is a likely cause of gestational diabetes too.

Hereditary and environmental factors are also leading causes that trigger diabetes in individuals and for them, we have the best diabetes treatments in India.

Who is most at risk of developing diabetes?

The risk of diabetes is increased due to certain factors including:

Type 1 Diabetes:

Children or teenagers are likely to be at risk of developing type 1 diabetes is the parents or siblings carry specific genes that are linked to the condition.

Type 2 Diabetes:

You are more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

  • If overweight or obese
  • If 45 years or older
  • If a diabetic sibling or a parent
  • If physically active
  • If diagnosed with gestational diabetes during your pregnancy
  • If diagnosed with prediabetes
  • If diagnosed with high blood pressure, cholesterol or triglycerides

Gestational Diabetes:

The risk of gestational diabetes is likely to be on the rise:

  • If overweight or obese
  • If over the age of 25-years
  • If one had gestational diabetes in any of the previous pregnancies
  • If baby weighs more than 4.8kgs in a past pregnancy
  • If have PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Pre-existing medical conditions along with genetic and environmental factor, singularly or in combination can potentially increase the risk of developing diabetes.

Diagnosis

Testing for diabetes is important to confirm the diagnosis. The following diagnostic screenings may be recommended by your healthcare provider:

To diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

  • The FPG or fasting plasma glucose blood test may be required which requires fasting for 8 hours prior to testing
  • The AC1 test is performed to project a snapshot of the glucose levels in the blood over a period of 3 months

To determine if there a possibility of gestational diabetes during the pregnancy, the doctor may prescribe the following tests between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy:

  • The glucose challenge test, the blood sugar levels are analyzed an hour after consuming a sugary drink
  • The 3-hour glucose tolerance screening checks the blood sugar levels post fasting overnight followed by drinking a sugary liquid

Treatment can begin as soon as the diagnosis for diabetes has been confirmed.

Treatment

 

The following types of treatment are applicable depending on the type of diabetes:

  • Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes: The key treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin as it is able to replace the hormone that the body is unable to produce. There are four types of insulin that are commonly used. The administration generally depends on how swiftly the insulin starts working and the duration of its impact on the individual.
  • Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes: Managing your diabetic condition is an important part of the treatment process for types of diabetes. This can be done by maintaining a healthy weight along with ensuring that your diet is as per the recommendations of your healthcare provider and combining it with an exercise plan.

You may also be prescribed medications that will help to regulate and control the blood sugar levels in the body.

  • Treatment for Gestational Diabetes: The blood sugar levels need regular monitoring throughout the pregnancy. Dietary and lifestyle changes may be recommended if the levels are really high.

Diseases & Treatment

Symptoms of Diabetes

The general symptoms that indicate a diabetic condition are:

  • Increased hunger pangs
  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Noticeable and sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • Longer healing time of sores and wounds

Adding on to the general symptoms of diabetes, men may go through the following:

  • Lower sex drive
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Lesser muscles strength

Women too may face additional symptoms in combination with the general symptoms, namely:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Yeast infections
  • Dry and itchy skin

Symptoms of diabetes can also vary depending on the type. Symptoms that indicate type 1 diabetes are:

  • Bouts of extreme hunger
  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urge for urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Sudden mood change

Symptoms that may point towards type 2 diabetes include:

  • Bouts of extreme hunger
  • Feeling thirstier than usual
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urge for urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Longer healing time
  • Recurring infections

Symptoms for gestational diabetes are not easily identified as most women don’t experience any. For the majority of cases of gestational diabetes, it is diagnosed during routine blood sugar testing or through an oral glucose tolerance test performed typically between the 24th and 28th week of the pregnancy.

However, in the rarest of circumstances, symptoms that may indicate to gestational diabetes during pregnancy are:

  • Frequent thirst
  • Need to urinate repeatedly

Causes of Diabetes

The reasons for the development of diabetes in an individual are largely due to the following:

Type 1 Diabetes: Medical practitioners are yet to find out exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. While many are of the opinion that genes play a key role in this, it is possible that the immune system that mistakenly fights and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that manufacture insulin could be triggered by a virus.

Type 2 Diabetes: This disease may be caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. Other factors that may also contribute as a significant cause is being overweight or obese. Carrying additional weight on the body, especially in the abdomen region, pushes the cells towards being more resistant to the impact of insulin on the sugar in the blood.

Gestational Diabetes: Hormonal changes during pregnancy is the primary cause of gestational diabetes. During this time, the placenta that connects the mother and the child in the womb generates these hormones that make the mother’s cells less responsive to the powers of insulin causing high blood sugar throughout the pregnancy period. Being overweight prior to pregnancy or gaining weight more than necessary during this period is a likely cause of gestational diabetes too.

Hereditary and environmental factors are also leading causes that trigger diabetes in individuals and for them, we have the best diabetes treatments in India.

Who is most at risk of developing diabetes?

The risk of diabetes is increased due to certain factors including:

Type 1 Diabetes:

Children or teenagers are likely to be at risk of developing type 1 diabetes is the parents or siblings carry specific genes that are linked to the condition.

Type 2 Diabetes:

You are more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

  • If overweight or obese
  • If 45 years or older
  • If a diabetic sibling or a parent
  • If physically active
  • If diagnosed with gestational diabetes during your pregnancy
  • If diagnosed with prediabetes
  • If diagnosed with high blood pressure, cholesterol or triglycerides

Gestational Diabetes:

The risk of gestational diabetes is likely to be on the rise:

  • If overweight or obese
  • If over the age of 25-years
  • If one had gestational diabetes in any of the previous pregnancies
  • If baby weighs more than 4.8kgs in a past pregnancy
  • If have PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Pre-existing medical conditions along with genetic and environmental factor, singularly or in combination can potentially increase the risk of developing diabetes.

Diagnosis

Testing for diabetes is important to confirm the diagnosis. The following diagnostic screenings may be recommended by your healthcare provider:

To diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

  • The FPG or fasting plasma glucose blood test may be required which requires fasting for 8 hours prior to testing
  • The AC1 test is performed to project a snapshot of the glucose levels in the blood over a period of 3 months

To determine if there a possibility of gestational diabetes during the pregnancy, the doctor may prescribe the following tests between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy:

  • The glucose challenge test, the blood sugar levels are analyzed an hour after consuming a sugary drink
  • The 3-hour glucose tolerance screening checks the blood sugar levels post fasting overnight followed by drinking a sugary liquid

Treatment can begin as soon as the diagnosis for diabetes has been confirmed.

Treatment

 

The following types of treatment are applicable depending on the type of diabetes:

  • Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes: The key treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin as it is able to replace the hormone that the body is unable to produce. There are four types of insulin that are commonly used. The administration generally depends on how swiftly the insulin starts working and the duration of its impact on the individual.
  • Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes: Managing your diabetic condition is an important part of the treatment process for types of diabetes. This can be done by maintaining a healthy weight along with ensuring that your diet is as per the recommendations of your healthcare provider and combining it with an exercise plan.

You may also be prescribed medications that will help to regulate and control the blood sugar levels in the body.

  • Treatment for Gestational Diabetes: The blood sugar levels need regular monitoring throughout the pregnancy. Dietary and lifestyle changes may be recommended if the levels are really high.

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